The wind turbine system is a technological system consisting of a wind generator that converts the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Wind energy produces neither harmful emissions to health nor greenhouse gases and is inexhaustible. There are two types of wind farms, differentiated by their installation on land or at sea. The first is called on-shore and is mainly designed and installed in open land areas, hilly areas, mountainous areas. The powers produced reach up to 20 MW. The second, called off-shore, is placed in the marine area near coastal areas or offshore. These parks are made with wind turbines mounted on a floating platform. The turbines can also be installed in deep-sea marine sites or offshore sites using coastal winds. For domestic use, there is mini wind power, which thanks to its small size and ease of installation adapts very well to the needs of individuals and companies. A mini wind power system connected to the electricity grid consists of the following components:
- support, generally consisting of a steel pole inserted into the ground (directly or more often through reinforced concrete foundation). The height of the pole varies according to the power of the plant and ranges from a minimum of 5 meters for small systems with a few kilowatts of power to over 30 meters for systems with 60 kW of power;
- turbine, consisting in turn of the rotor (the blades) and the nacelle containing the mechanical transmission organs driven by the rotor and the electric generator;
- generator control and inverter system, i.e., electronic equipment that manages the operation of the rotor-generator system in all wind conditions and allows adjustment of the electrical energy produced to the characteristics of the electrical grid.
Some advantages of mini wind power are:
- Production of energy without emitting polluting substances;
- Savings in the electricity bill;
- Minimal and deferred maintenance over many years;
- Low environmental impact solution based on an inexhaustible energy source
Wind power plants enjoy incentives on the energy produced according to the DM July 2012; plants that entered into operation after January 1, 2013, are entitled to benefit from the incentive mechanism of the Tariffa omnicomprensiva or alternatively to the on-site exchange service. The choice between the all-inclusive tariff and on-site exchange must be made based on the energy production of the plant itself and especially on the amount of energy self-consumed. The all-inclusive tariff is convenient when the wind power plant produces a quantity of energy greater than that consumed. The incentive of €0.291/kWh for wind power plants connected to the electricity grid with a power between 1 and 20 kW and €0.268/kWh for wind power plants connected to the electricity grid with a power between 20 and 200 kW. On-site exchange is convenient when the wind power plant produces a high amount of energy but with discontinuous self-consumption, thus ensuring a fixed contribution. Wind power plants with a power not exceeding 200 kW can take advantage of it.