The photovoltaic system is an electrical system, but above all it is a clean energy source, made up of several photovoltaic modules that use solar energy to produce electrical energy by exploiting the photovoltaic effect through materials sensitive to sunlight (such as silicon). The photovoltaic panels are connected in series and are interfaced with an Inverter, an electronic device that converts the direct current coming from the photovoltaic field into alternating current so that it is immediately available for domestic use. To optimize the production of the panels, it is essential to orient the panels in the right direction (the optimal one is south) and at the correct inclination (it should be around 30°). A photovoltaic system provides various installation possibilities, including on the roof, on the facade, on the ground or on the terrace or balcony. The choice of the power of the photovoltaic system is based on one’s annual needs; generally, a standard family requires a 3 kWp system. In any case, the greater the power of the system, the greater the amount of energy produced. With the installation of the photovoltaic system, in addition to the traditional meter, a bidirectional meter is installed that allows excess energy produced to be transferred to the local distributor by making the so-called “on-site exchange”.
The photovoltaic system can also be equipped with a “battery” storage system, which allows the energy produced by the photovoltaic panels during the day to be stored. The advantages offered by a photovoltaic system are numerous, including:
- The photovoltaic system should be considered an investment and not a cost: the invested capital is recovered over time, on average in 6 years;
– thanks to the photovoltaic system, dependence on national electricity grid operators is limited and it is possible to produce the energy needed independently;
- The photovoltaic system allows not only to save but even to “earn”. In fact, thanks to the “on-site exchange”, it is possible to feed back unused energy into the grid, which is paid according to what is established by GSE (Energy Services Manager);
- Photovoltaic systems installed on house roofs benefit from a 50% tax deduction. The State gives the possibility of halving the costs by “returning” half of the expenses incurred to those who choose photovoltaics. The refund does not take place by bank transfer or monetary settlement but in the form (and by means) of tax breaks spread over the 10 years following the year of installation of the system.